On the one paradox of measurements of the magnetic field of the Sun
Records of the mean magnetic field (MMF) of the Sun-as-a-star performed by different instruments and using various spectral lines, often show significant discrepancies. It is generally ascribed to the errors of measurements and a “saturation” of the solar magnetograph in the fine-structure photospheric elements with strong magnetic intensity. We analysed the longitudinal MMF measurements performed in 1968–2006 by six observatories. It is shown that the discrepancy degree (the slope b of a linear regression line) changes substantially with the phase of 11 year cycle. A paradox therefore arises: does the state of the Sun itself affect the magnetograph calibration? An explanation is seen in quantum properties of light – nonlocality and “coalescence” of photons which polarization on the telescope/spectrograph exit is determined by large areas of the solar disk. With that, the extent of a coalescence, or “indistinguishability”, of photons depends on the photospheric field distribution and the construction of a given device (in accordance with Bohr: “the instrument inevitably influences the output of measurement”). The dependence of a coalescence degree on the phase of the cycle easily explains the b slope “mystery”. Tne statistical nature of light itself, thus, makes unavoidable the disagreements, requiring simple averaging of the data in order to get the best approximation of the real MMF. We present the MMF modulus for 39 years which exhibits significant variation of the Sun’s field intensity with a cycle period of 10.5(7) years.
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